Can a man get hiv from breast milk
Mother-to-child transmission can occur during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. The best way to prevent transmission of HIV to an infant through breast milk is to not breastfeed. In the United States, where mothers have access to clean water and affordable replacement feeding infant formula , CDC and the American Academy of Pediatrics external icon recommend that HIV-infected mothers completely avoid breastfeeding their infants, regardless of ART and maternal viral load. Healthcare providers should be aware that some mothers with HIV may experience social or cultural pressure to breastfeed. In resource-limited settings, such as some parts of Africa, the World Health Organization WHO recommends that HIV-infected mothers breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months of life and continue breastfeeding for at least 12 months, with the addition of complementary foods. These mothers should be given ART to reduce the risk of transmission through breastfeeding.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: HIV Infection, Ways that can transmit , and ways that cannot
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Can HIV be transmitted through breast milk?
Breastfeeding may be natural, but it is not always simple. Then when they become discouraged, they are told to stop breastfeeding altogether and to give artificial substitutes. If the mother is HIV positive, more uncertainty is added. Until recently, the World Health Organization WHO advised HIV-positive mothers to avoid breastfeeding if they were able to afford, prepare and store formula milk safely.
But research has since emerged, particularly from South Africa, that shows that a combination of exclusive breastfeeding and the use of antiretroviral treatment can significantly reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to babies through breastfeeding. For the first time, WHO is recommending that HIV-positive mothers or their infants take antiretroviral drugs throughout the period of breastfeeding and until the infant is 12 months old.
This means that the child can benefit from breastfeeding with very little risk of becoming infected with HIV. Prior research had shown that exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of an infant's life was associated with a three- to fourfold decreased risk of HIV transmission compared to infants who were breastfed and also received other milks or foods.
Instrumental in guiding the new recommendations were two major African studies that announced their findings in July at the fifth International AIDS Society conference in Cape Town. In spite of these findings it will be a challenge to change the ingrained culture of formula feeding in South Africa. Breastfeeding not only provides babies with the nutrients they need for optimal development but also gives babies the antibodies they need to protect them against some of these common but deadly illnesses.
WHO recommends that all mothers, regardless of their HIV status, practise exclusive breastfeeding — which means no other liquids or food are given — in the first six months.
After six months, the baby should start on complementary foods. Mothers who are not infected with HIV should breastfeed until the infant is two years or older. Penny Reimers, of the Department of Nursing at Durban University of Technology, says the greatest declines in breastfeeding have taken place in countries where formula milk has been distributed at no cost, South Africa being a prime example.
Infant formula was distributed by national and local authorities and by local nongovernmental organizations to prevent the transmission of HIV from mother-to-child, an initiative which inevitably undermined breastfeeding. An unforeseen consequence of the campaign was that even mothers who were not HIV positive turned to formula, says Reimers.
One is the changing role of women in South African society. More women are in paid work than 20 years ago and many struggle to fit breastfeeding into their routines. Later she switched to expressing milk, which she conserved in bottles, but had to go into the company boardroom to do this in private.
Deidre Zimri, operations manager for a transport company, did her expressing in the waiting room when no one was using it. So what can be done to make it easier for women to choose the breastfeeding option? The government needs to convince industry to make it easy for mothers to carry on breastfeeding after returning to work, says Lulama Sigasana, a nutritionist working at Ikamva Labantu, a South African non-profit organization based in Cape Town.
She also believes that mothers should be provided with space and time to express milk in private at work. She says the government could do more to communicate the message that breastfeeding is good.
There need to be nationwide campaigns aimed at everyone. Without their active support, how quickly can attitudes really change? One thing is certain: health professionals will be more likely to support the underlying message if they have a basic understanding of current research. Health Topics. Year of the Nurse and the Midwife About Us. Skip to main content. Lungi Langa reports. It takes time to learn the techniques: young mother breastfeeding in Mowbray Maternity Hospital, Cape Town.
Breast milk kills HIV and blocks its oral transmission in humanized mouse
The medical advice given to women living with HIV about infant feeding has changed many times over the past 20 years and is likely to continue to evolve. The advice given also differs according to where you live. In the UK and other high-income countries, the safest way for a mother living with HIV to feed her baby is to bottle feed using formula milk. In low income countries however, you may be advised to breastfeed.
Two cases of HIV transmission from mother to infant during the breastfeeding period when mothers had an undetectable viral load have been reported by PROMISE, a large international study of the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment in preventing vertical HIV transmission. Earlier this year an international group of researchers called for more research to determine if HIV can be transmitted through breast milk even if the breastfeeding mother has an undetectable viral load in blood. Swiss doctors have argued that pregnant women with HIV should be informed of the uncertain evidence about the risk of transmission during breastfeeding, and rather than being prohibited from breastfeeding while taking antiretroviral drugs, should be supported to breastfeed safely through regular viral load testing and education about factors that might increase the risk of transmission, such as mastitis. The World Bank classifies countries according to their income: low, lower-middle, upper-middle and high. There are around 50 lower-middle income countries mostly in Africa and Asia and around 60 upper-middle income countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Since breast milk can contain HIV, U. Many studies have investigated the issue, with one study of babies born to women with HIV in Zambia finding a more than three-fold increased risk of early postnatal HIV transmission with mixed feeding compared to exclusive breastfeeding. A more recent theory is that women who only breastfeed intermittently are more likely to have engorged breasts and breast inflammation, which increases the amount of virus that they shed in their breast milk. Clinicians and community health specialists discussed this issue during a webinar held by the San Francisco Department of Public Health. Consider the case, said Levison, of a pregnant woman who has been newly diagnosed with HIV who says the hardest part of adjusting to her new diagnosis is not being able to breastfeed. Is that an issue or problem for you? If a mother still wishes to breastfeed even after learning about the risk of HIV transmission to her baby, Levinson applies a harm reduction approach. She does this, she says, with the understanding that people will make positive health choices if they are provided adequate support, empowerment and education. There are options to reduce the risk that a woman will pass on HIV while breastfeeding, Levinson says.
Breast is always best, even for HIV-positive mothers
More than 15 percent of new HIV infections occur in children. Without treatment, only 65 percent of HIV-infected children will live until their first birthday, and fewer than half will make it to the age of two. Although breastfeeding is attributed to a significant number of these infections, most breastfed infants are not infected with HIV, despite prolonged and repeated exposure. HIV researchers have been left with a conundrum: does breast milk transmit the virus or protect against it?
.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: HIV-postive mothers grapple with breast-feeding