Can man get hiv from a woman
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system mainly CD4-positive T-cells and macrophages—key components of the cellular immune system and destroys or impairs their function. Infection with this virus results in the progressive depletion of the immune system, leading to immunodeficiency. The immune system is considered deficient when it can no longer fulfil its role of fighting off infection and diseases.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Circumcised men are less likely to contract HIV from their female partners
SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: HIV - Female to Male (Highly Unlikely)Content:
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- How Is HIV Transmitted?
- What Is the Risk of HIV From Vaginal Sex?
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- HIV and AIDS - Basic facts
- Vaginal Sex and HIV Risk
- Against All Odds: What Are Your Chances of Getting HIV in These Scenarios?
- Data Protection Choices
- HIV and Specific Populations
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HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is a retrovirus that infects cells of the human immune system mainly CD4-positive T-cells and macrophages—key components of the cellular immune system and destroys or impairs their function. Infection with this virus results in the progressive depletion of the immune system, leading to immunodeficiency.
The immune system is considered deficient when it can no longer fulfil its role of fighting off infection and diseases. People with immunodeficiency are much more vulnerable to a wide range of infections and cancers, most of which are rare among people without immunodeficiency. Diseases associated with severe immunodeficiency are known as opportunistic infections because they take advantage of a weakened immune system. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and describes the collection of symptoms and infections associated with acquired deficiency of the immune system.
The level of immunodeficiency or the appearance of certain infections are used as indicators that HIV infection has progressed to AIDS see question 4. Most people infected with HIV do not know that they have become infected. Immediately after the infection, some people have a glandular fever-like illness with fever, rash, joint pains and enlarged lymph nodes , which can occur at the time of seroconversion. Seroconversion refers to the development of antibodies to HIV and usually takes place between one and two months after an infection has occurred see question Despite the fact that HIV infection often does not cause any symptoms, a person newly infected with HIV is infectious and can transmit the virus to another person see question 7.
HIV infection causes a gradual depletion and weakening of the immune system. This results in an increased susceptibility of the body to infections and cancers and can lead to the development of AIDS see questions 2 and 4. AIDS is identified on the basis of certain infections. Most of these conditions are opportunistic infections that can be treated easily in healthy people.
CD4-positive T-cells are critical in mounting an effective immune response to infections. The length of time can vary widely between individuals.
Antiretroviral therapy can prevent progression to AIDS by decreasing viral load in an infected body see question HIV is transmitted through penetrative anal or vaginal sex, blood transfusion, the sharing of contaminated needles in health-care settings and drug injection and between mother and infant during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
HIV can be transmitted through penetrative sex. HIV is not transmitted very efficiently so the risk of infection through a single act of vaginal sex is low.
Transmission through anal sex has been reported to be 10 times higher than by vaginal sex. A person with an untreated sexually transmitted infection, particularly involving ulcers or discharge, is, on average, six to 10 times more likely to pass on or acquire HIV during sex. When a person living with HIV is taking effective antiretroviral therapy and has a suppressed viral load they are no longer infectious. Re-using or sharing needles or syringes represents a highly efficient way of transmitting HIV.
Transmission in a health-care setting can be lowered by health-care workers adhering to universal precautions see question HIV can be transmitted to an infant during pregnancy, labour, delivery and breastfeeding. A number of factors influence the risk of infection, particularly the viral load of the mother at birth the higher the load, the higher the risk. Transmission from mother to child after birth can also occur through breastfeeding see question The chances of transmission of HIV to a child is very low if the mother is on antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and when breastfeeding.
However, the implementation of blood safety standards ensures the provision of safe, adequate and good-quality blood and blood products for all patients requiring transfusion. Blood safety includes screening of all donated blood for HIV and other blood-borne pathogens, as well as appropriate donor selection. Transmission through kissing on the mouth carries no risk, and no evidence has been found that the virus is spread through saliva by kissing. A risk of HIV transmission does exist if contaminated instruments are either not sterilized or are shared with others.
Instruments that are intended to penetrate the skin should be used once, then disposed of or thoroughly cleaned and sterilized. Any kind of cut using an unsterilized object, such as a razor or knife, can transmit HIV.
Sharing razors is not advisable unless they are fully sterilized after each use. It is best for someone living with HIV to avoid becoming infected with a different strain of the virus. Therefore, the advice given in question 11 should be followed, except for the advice about pre-exposure prophylaxis, which is never used by people living with HIV. Safer sex involves taking precautions that decrease the potential of transmitting or acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, while having sex.
Using condoms correctly and consistently during sex is considered safer sex, as is oral sex and non-penetrative sex or taking pre exposure prophylaxis if you are at risk of HIV infection or having undetectable viral load if you are living with HIV.
Quality-assured condoms are the only products currently available to protect against sexual infection by HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. When used properly, condoms are a proven and effective means of preventing HIV infection among women and men.
In order to achieve the protective effect of condoms, they must be used correctly and consistently. Incorrect use can lead to condom slippage or breakage, thus diminishing their protective effect.
A female condom is a female-controlled contraceptive barrier method. The female condom is a strong, soft, transparent polyurethane sheath inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. It entirely lines the vagina and, therefore, with correct and consistent use, provides protection against both pregnancy and many sexually transmitted infections, including HIV.
The female condom has no known side-effects or risks and does not require a prescription or the intervention of a health-care provider. Post-exposure preventive PEP treatment consists of medication, laboratory tests and counselling. PEP treatment must be initiated within hours of possible HIV exposure and must continue for a period of approximately four weeks. Research studies suggest that, if the medication is initiated quickly after possible HIV exposure ideally within two hours and not later than 72 hours following such exposure , it is beneficial in preventing HIV infection.
Transmission of HIV from a mother living with HIV to her baby can occur during pregnancy, during labour or after delivery through breastfeeding. This risk depends on clinical factors and may vary according to the pattern and duration of breastfeeding. Great progress has been made in reducing the number of children born with HIV. Early infant diagnosis is essential to identify the HIV status of infants and to improve prevention and treatment programmes, as peak mortality occurs between six weeks to four months of age for children who have acquired HIV infection.
Health-care workers should follow universal precautions. Universal precautions are infection-control guidelines developed to protect health workers and their patients from exposure to diseases spread by blood and certain body fluids.
In addition, it is recommended that all health-care workers take precautions to prevent injuries caused by needles, scalpels and other sharp instruments or devices. In accordance with universal precautions, blood and other body fluids from all people are considered as infected with HIV and other possible viruses, regardless of the known or supposed status of the person.
There is no cure for HIV. However, there is effective treatment, which, if started promptly and taken regularly, results in a quality and length of life for someone living with HIV that is similar to that expected in the absence of infection.
Antiretroviral medicines are used in the treatment of HIV infection. When a person living with HIV is on effective antiretroviral therapy, they are no longer infectious.
Inside an infected cell, HIV produces new copies of itself, which can then go on to infect other healthy cells within the body. The more cells HIV infects, the greater its impact on the immune system immunodeficiency. Antiretroviral medicines slow down the replication and, therefore, the spread of the virus within the body by interfering with its replication process in different ways.
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: HIV needs an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to generate new copies of itself. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: this group of medicines also interferes with the replication of HIV by binding to the reverse transcriptase enzyme itself. This prevents the enzyme from working and stops the production of new virus particles in the infected cells.
Protease inhibitors: protease is a digestive enzyme that is needed in the replication of HIV to generate new virus particles. It breaks down proteins and enzymes in the infected cells, which can then go on to infect other cells. The protease inhibitors prevent this breakdown of proteins and therefore slows down the production of new virus particles. The use of antiretroviral medicines in a combination of three medicines has been shown to dramatically reduce AIDS-related illness and death.
While not a cure for AIDS, combination antiretroviral therapy has enabled people living with HIV to live longer, healthier, more productive lives by reducing viraemia the amount of HIV in the blood and increasing the number of CD4-positive cells white blood cells that are central to the effective functioning of the immune system.
For antiretroviral treatment to be effective for a long time, different antiretroviral medicines need to be combined. This is what is known as combination therapy. If one medicine is taken on its own, it has been found that, over a period of time, changes in the virus enable it to build up resistance to the medicine.
The medicine is then no longer effective and the virus starts to reproduce to the same extent as before.
If two or more antiretroviral medicines are taken together, the rate at which resistance develops can be reduced substantially. Effective antiretroviral therapy also prevents the transmission of HIV.
When a person living with HIV is taking effective antiretroviral therapy and has a suppressed viral load HIV can no longer be transmitted through sex. Commonly used HIV tests detect the antibodies produced by the immune system in response to HIV, as they are much easier and cheaper to detect than the virus itself. Antibodies are produced by the immune system in response to an infection. For most people, it takes a month for these antibodies to develop.
Antibodies can be found in blood or oral fluid. Generally, it is recommended that you wait three months after possible exposure before being tested for HIV. Although HIV antibody tests are very sensitive, there is a window period of up to two months, depending on the specific test being used, which is the period between infection with HIV and the appearance of detectable antibodies to the virus.
In the case of the most sensitive anti-HIV tests currently recommended, the window period is about three weeks. This period may be longer if less-sensitive tests are used. During the window period, people infected with HIV have no antibodies in their blood that can be detected by an HIV test. However, the person may already have high levels of HIV in their body fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids and breast milk.
Knowing your HIV status has two vital benefits. Firstly, if you are HIV-infected, you can start treatment promptly, thereby potentially prolonging your life for many years see question Secondly, if you know you are infected, you can take all the necessary precautions to prevent the spread of HIV to others see question There are many places where you can be tested for HIV: in the offices of a private doctor, a local health department, hospitals, family planning clinics and sites specifically set up for HIV testing.
Always try to find testing at a place where counselling is provided about HIV. However you should go and see your health-care provider in the event of a positive test result for confirmation and seeking appropriate treatment.
How Is HIV Transmitted?
Harm reduction during a pandemic. What do the latest studies tell us about this risk? And how should we interpret and communicate the results? To do this effectively, a group of HIV-negative individuals need to be followed over time and their exposures to HIV—both the number of times they are exposed and the types of exposure—need to be tracked. As you can imagine, accurately tracking the number of times a person is exposed to HIV is very difficult.
What Is the Risk of HIV From Vaginal Sex?
Several factors can increase the risk of HIV in women. For example, during vaginal or anal sex, a woman has a greater risk for getting HIV because, in general, receptive sex is riskier than insertive sex. HIV is spread through the blood, pre-seminal fluids, semen, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids, or breast milk of a person who has HIV. Age-related thinning and dryness of the vagina may also increase the risk of HIV in older women. A woman's risk of HIV can also increase if her partner engages in high-risk behaviors, such as injection drug use or having sex with other partners without using condoms. However, birth control and pregnancy are two issues that can affect HIV treatment in women. Birth control Some HIV medicines may reduce the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, patches, rings, or implants. Women taking certain HIV medicines may have to use an additional or different form of birth control.
Q: What are the chances of a man being infected after condomless sex with a woman who has HIV? In general, the risk of a man getting HIV from an HIV-positive woman during vaginal intercourse in the United States is low--probably less than 1 of 1, exposures will result in actual infection. This risk may be higher depending on certain factors, such as whether the woman is having her period or whether the man is uncircumcised, and it also may be higher in poor countries. Of course, there is no risk of getting HIV from a woman unless she has HIV, so it's good to talk about this with any potential sex partner.
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HIV and AIDS - Basic facts
HIV is not spread through saliva, by touching a person or object, or by insect bites. In the United States, the most common ways for HIV to spread are unprotected sex and injection drug use. Risk of HIV transmission increases if there are open sores on the genitals of the person receiving oral sex, or mouth sores, gum disease or recent dental work for the person giving oral sex. Condoms and dental dams reduce the chance of giving or getting HIV during oral sex.
During a median follow-up period of 1. No HIV transmissions occurred. The investigators concluded that the risk of HIV transmission through vaginal intercourse in these circumstances was effectively zero Rodger. When HIV is not suppressed by antiretroviral treatment, vaginal intercourse without a condom is a highly efficient route of HIV transmission because high concentrations of HIV can occur in semen and vaginal fluids, and because the genital tissues are very susceptible to infection. This allows the virus to reach the inner vaginal lining, which is rich in immune cells through which it can establish systemic infection. Cells located beneath the surface of the cervix are particularly vulnerable to HIV infection, especially during adolescence and during a woman's first pregnancy, or due to infection with human papillomavirus and chlamydia.
Vaginal Sex and HIV Risk
Colleague's E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. Compared to circumcised men, uncircumcised men are more than twice as likely to acquire HIV-1 each time they have unprotected sex with an infected woman, according to a team of researchers in the US and Kenya. The study—the first to measure infectivity, or the probability of HIV-1 transmission per sex act, in a context of multiple partnerships—also found that infectivity among men, whether circumcised or not, who have several female partners is many fold higher than estimates based on monogamous HIV-1 discordant couples J Infect Dis , : — Jared Baeten of the University of Washington in Seattle and his colleagues calculated infectivity from data collected during a 4-year prospective study of male employees of six trucking companies in Mombasa, Kenya. Ninety-five of the men were uncircumcised.
Male circumcision reduces the risk of infection with HIV-1 from female sexual partners by more than twofold, according to a study of Kenyan men published in the 15 th February edition of The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Although previous studies have found similar trends, this investigation is the first to assess the risk of transmission per sex act in an area where multiple sexual partners and a lack of male circumcision are common, and to take religious and ethnic differences into account. Although sub-Saharan Africa has a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection, the spread of the virus has not been uniform across the region. To resolve these issues, investigators from Kenya and the United States carried out a prospective study of HIV infection and sexual behaviour in a cohort of Kenyan men.
Against All Odds: What Are Your Chances of Getting HIV in These Scenarios?
Vaginal sex intercourse involves inserting the penis into the vagina. Some sexual activities are riskier than others for getting or transmitting HIV. Activities like oral sex, touching, and kissing carry little to no risk for getting or transmitting HIV. In addition to HIV, a person can get other sexually transmitted diseases STDs like chlamydia and gonorrhea from vaginal sex if condoms are not used correctly.
Data Protection Choices
HIV and Specific Populations